The Mitzvah as Love Offering
The mi in front of the root tzavoh, command, makes it passive, a “good work” or “love offering,” but not commanded. However, metzaveh is active, a real command. God commanded us, “All the commandment [kol ha-mitzvah] which I command [anokhi metzaveh] you this day you shall be careful to do” Deut 8:1. In these words God commanded his people Israel to do all of the Torah’s 613 mitzvot (plural) as love offerings.
Salvation and Sanctification
Beit Shammai understood the mitzvot to be salvific. In Judaism salvific invites the Messiah’s coming, reflecting the Jewish belief that he has not yet come. Beit Hillel understood them to be sanctifying. In Jewish sanctifying means improving in holiness. In Catholic understanding, sanctifying is preparation for heaven. The rabbis now follow Beit Hillel, with the understanding that after the Messiah comes they will follow the stricter interpretations of Beit Shammai.
Promise and Fulfillment
The third paragraph of the Shma Num 15:38–41includes, “So you shall remember and do all my commandments, and be holy to your God” Num 15:40. Jewish tradition understands this to be a promise-and-fulfillment, with God saying in effect, “If you observe my mitzvot you will be holy. Observance is the means of sanctification, rather than the result. Jews pray before performing a ritual commandment, “Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who has sanctified us by your mitzvot, and commanded us to …”
Mitzvah as Imitation of God
Abraham Joshua Heschel, in Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity, p. 278, therefore sees in this, “The mitzvot are the Jewish sacraments, sacraments that may be performed in common deeds of kindness.” One explanation comes from God‘s phrase “my mitzvot” Lev 26:3, which some rabbis understand as God‘s mitzvot, the mitzvot that God observes. A Jew who keeps them in this life is thereby imitating God.
Mitzvah as Communion With God
A mitzvah is an act which God and man have in common. We say: “Blessed art Thou, Lord our God, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His mitzvot.” They oblige Him as well as us. Their fulfillment is not valued as an act performed in spite of “the evil drive” [ yetzer ra] but as an act of communion with Him. The spirit of mitzvah is togetherness. We know, He is a partner to our act.
The New and Eternal Covenant
Rabbi Yeshua‘s New and Eternal Covenant is very similar. Where the mitzvah is observed by man together with him, Rabbi Yeshua‘s covenant is an exchange of persons. He gives himself to us, and we give ourselves to him.
Integral Understanding of the Law
The Catholic Church understands God’s law the same way. A single unrepented mortal sin can send us to hell for all eternity § 1857. Our first parents committed only one mortal sin Gen 3:6, and were driven out of paradise Gen 3:24. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in its Glossary, states under Punishment, Eternal, “The penalty for unrepented mortal sin, separating the sinner from communion with God for all eternity; the condemnation of the unrepentant sinner to hell” p. 896.
Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant which they broke, though I was their husband, says the Lord. But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it upon their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people Jer 31:31–33.