Shlikhim

In Hebrew a shaliakh is a man sent on a mission, plural shlikhim, several men. The original twelve men Rabbi Yeshua sent to preach the good news were his shlikhim, Apostles. They retained the honored title shaliakh forever. However, after he ascended the shlikhim also became tanaim, teachers. Rabbi Yeshua’s other followers were his talmidim, students.

Shaliakh is accented on the second syllable: sha-LI-akh. So is : sh-LIKH-im.

“These twelve Jesus sent out, charging them, ‘Go nowhere among the Gentiles, and enter no town of the Samaritans, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And preach as you go, saying, “The kingdom of heaven is at hand”’” Mt 10:57.

Rabbi Yeshua’s Original Apostles

All twelve original shlikhim were Jews. Ten had Hebrew names, including Shimeon bar-Yona who became Kefa (Simon Peter), Yaakov ben Zevdi (James the son of Zebedee), Yokhanan (John), Bar Talmay (Bartholomew, also called Nathanael), Matityahu (Matthew), T’oma (Thomas) Yaakov ben Halfai (James the son of Alphaeus), Shimeon haQana (Simon the Cananaean, also called Simon the Zealot), Yehuda ben Yaakov (Judas the son of James, also called Thaddeus), and Yehuda Ish Krayot (Judas Iscariot).

Two, Andreas and Philippos, had Greek names. Those with Jewish names were not “more Jewish” than those with Greek names. Shimeon and Andreas were brothers. Most Jews gave their children Hebrew names, a few gave theirs Greek names.

Mt 10:24Mk 3:1319Lk 6:1216Acts 1:1214

St. Matthew:

The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus; Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. Mt 10:24

The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Shimeon bar-Yona, who is called Kefa, and Andreas his brother; Yaakov ben Zevdi, and Yokhanan his brother; Philippos and Bar Talmay; T’oma and Matityahu the tax collector; Yaakov ben Halfai, and Yehuda ben Yaakov; Shimeon haQana, and Yehuda Ish Krayot, who betrayed him Mt 10:24.

St. Mark:

And he went up on the mountain, and called to him those whom he desired; and they came to him. And he appointed twelve, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach and have authority to cast out demons: Simon whom he surnamed Peter; James the son of Zebedee and John the brother of James, whom he surnamed Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder; Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. Mk 3:1319.

And he went up on the mountain, and called to him those whom he desired; and they came to him. And he appointed twelve, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach and have authority to cast out demons: Shimeon bar-Yona whom he surnamed Kefa; Yaakov ben Zevdi and Yokhanan the brother of Yaakov, whom he surnamed Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder; Andreas, and Philippos, and Bar Talmay, and Matityahu, and T’oma, and Yaakov ben Halfai, and Yehuda ben Yaakov, and Shimeon haQana, and Yehuda Ish Krayot, who betrayed him Mk 3:1319.

St. Luke:

“And when it was day, he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles; Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor” Lk 6:1316.

And when it was day, he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles; Shimeon bar-Yona, whom he named Kefa, and Andreas his brother, and Yaakov ben Zevdi and Yokhanan, and Philippos, and Bar Talmay, and Matityahu, and T’oma, and Yaakov ben Halfai, and Shimeon haQana, and Yehuda ben Yaakov, and Yehuda Ish Krayot, who became a traitor Lk 6:1316.

St. Luke, in Acts of the Apostles:

Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day’s journey away; and when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James. All these with one accord devoted themselves to prayer, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren Acts 1:1214.

Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day’s journey away; and when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Kefa and Yokhanan and Yaakov ben Zevdi and Andreas, Philippos and T’oma, Bar Talmay and Matityahu, Yaakov ben Halfai, and Shimeon haQana and Yehuda ben Yaakov. All these with one accord devoted themselves to prayer, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren Acts 1:1214.

Other Apostles and Evangelists

The eleven enrolled Matthias as the twelfth shaliakh Acts 1:26, but we hear nothing more of him. Rabbi Paul (born Shaul ha-Tarsi) was the twelfth active shaliakh Rom 1:1; 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; Gal 1:1; Eph 1:1; 1 Tim 1:1; 2 Tim 1:1. Rabbi Shaul changed his own name at Acts 13:9 and was called Rabbi Paul during his missionary journeys.

Rabbi Barnabas was Rabbi Paul’s frequent travel companion. Rabbi Lucas called Rabbi Barnabas an apostle Acts 14:14.

Rabbi Marcus and Rabbi Lucas were tanaim, teachers, evangelists who wrote two of the four canonical Gospels. Rabbi means “my teacher.” St. Mark’s original name was Latin, Marcus. St. Luke’s was Greek, Lucas.